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Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering unconventional methods which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. Shivaji’s birthplace on Shivneri Fort. 6 April 1627 or 19 February 1630. Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child.
Shivaji was named after this local deity. Pune and his small army with him. Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. Karnataka to lead a military campaign on behalf of Adilshahi.
Dadoji has been credited with overseeing education and training of young Shivaji. Shivaji as a boy was a keen outdoorsman and, though he received little formal education and most likely could neither read nor write, he is said to have possessed considerable erudition. However, Shivaji’s association with the Maval comrades and his independent spirit did not sit well with Dadoji who complained to Shahaji to no avail in making him compliant. Inayat Khan, to hand over the possession of the fort to him. Shivaji and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Adilshahi governor. Shivaji maintained a low profile.
1665 during a hunting accident. Shivaji in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt. The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by a follower. Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji. Shivaji then signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris.
In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji’s forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate’s forces. More than 3,000 soldiers of the Bijapur army were killed and two sons of Afzal Khan were taken as prisoners. This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.
In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the centre of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. Adilshahi forces lost about 2,000 horses and 12 elephants to the Marathas. This victory alarmed Aurangzeb, who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the “Mountain Rat”, and prepared to address this rising Maratha threat. Shivaji’s southern border, in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. Siddi Jauhar’s army besieged Panhala in mid-1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddhi Jahuar had purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English.